- Copy Editing: Checking grammar, usage, spelling, punctuation, and other mechanics of style; checking for style and fact consistency; inserting headings and art; editing tables, figures, and lists.
- Structural/Stylistic Editing: Clarifying and polishing meaning, eliminating jargon, and other non-mechanical line editing. Reorganizing content and structure, clarifying meaning as needed
- Proofreading: Checking proofs of formatted, edited material for adherence to design and for minor errors.
- Mark-up/Electronic Coding/Tagging: Inserting codes into the manuscript electronically, to indicate design elements.
- Manuscript Consolidation: Accepting edits and implementing any changes authors have made to the manuscript after the first copy edit, preparing the text for production.
All of these services are defined using terms employed by the Editors’ Association of Canada.